Selection of fuel for power generation must consider the potential of fuel sources; stability in the supply of fuel prices; and the problem of the environmental impact of fuels including the type of power plant required in the system to comply with the nature of electricity consumption In each period.
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The types of fuels that EGAT considers for use as fuel in power generation are oil power, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, lignite, coal, nuclear origin, and electricity purchases from neighboring countries. There is also renewable energy. including solar energy By installing solar cells, wind energy and geothermal energy, etc.
In addition to considering the type of fuel to generate electricity. must consider the type of power plant, consisting of each type of power plant is appropriate to produce electricity on demand, each period is different and each type of power plant has fuel consumption. which EGAT chooses to use the type of power plant and the type of fuel in each period as follows
1) Power plants that produce electrical energy according to basic needs
It is a power plant that must operate all the time. is therefore a power plant using cheap fuel first
Including thermal power which uses fuel oil or coal as fuel. combined cycle power plant which uses natural gas as fuel and nuclear power plants
2) Power plants that generate electricity during the medium demand period
will use a combined cycle power plant which uses natural gas as fuel and if natural gas is not available Diesel must be used instead in the case of a combined cycle power plant. which will increase fuel costs.
3) Power plants that produce electrical energy Peak electricity demand period
has the characteristics of running It is the time when there is only the highest demand for electricity, including gas turbine power plants. which uses diesel fuel fuel hydroelectric power plant and pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants
characteristics of electricity consumption of each type of power consumer will be different in each period, which will determine the power plant to operate in accordance with with the demand for electricity in each period At present, the nature of electricity consumption of the system can be divided into 2 periods, i.e. the period with the highest electricity usage between 9.00 – 22.00 hrs. and the period with the lowest electricity usage between 22.00 – 9.00 hrs. by electricity users. Residential house type Small businesses and businesses such as hotels) will use peak electricity in the early evening. a large industry is characterized. The electricity consumption is quite constant. large business segment Therefore, during peak electricity usage, EGAT needs to operate the power plant. While it is okay to produce electricity based on basic needs. a power plant that produces electricity medium demand range and power plants that produce electricity peak demand together
Notice: Everyone needs electricity. But no one wants to have a power station near their house.
An important factor in selecting fuel for power generation is low cost, which costs consist of power plant construction costs. operating costs and fuel costs. In 1998, lignite was the cheapest fuel cost, followed by natural gas, fuel oil and diesel.
In Thailand, gasoline is the most used fuel. Next is natural gas.
Environmental problems from the use of fossil fuels
environmental problems from energy use The deterioration of most environmental conditions. It can be said that it is almost entirely caused by human energy production and consumption. Therefore, seeking energy resources to meet ever-increasing energy demands should be cautious and carefully considered before using them. Environmentalists have discussed the impact of using energy resources as follows.
1) cause sickness and death
2) damage things and natural resources
3) Destroy the environment and living things.
4) Pollution in soil, water and air
Selection of fuel for electricity generation by country
Every country has to use electricity together. Each country chooses different fuels to generate electricity. Some countries use coal and some countries use natural gas. Some countries use oil, others use nuclear. This is because each country has different natural fuel resources and different technology potential. Arab countries or Middle Eastern countries use oil and natural gas as fuel. But European countries and Japan use nuclear power. Malaysia, a country with a lot of coal, uses coal as fuel. The main principles that all countries choose to use are the same. That is, the fuel must be cheap, easy to find, and sufficient in quantity to meet demand. And it is a resource that is mostly available in one’s own country.
But there are some countries that have a different way of thinking that they have their own fuel resources, that is, they have a lot of oil. but not yet excavated Instead, they use methods to buy from abroad or use nuclear power that many countries do not dare to use. such as the United States Because the United States has the potential to bring nuclear energy to use. Therefore, there are no competitors in buying cheap nuclear fuel.
Risk diversification in fuel selection
For countries with few fuel resources For example, Thailand has to import fuel from foreign countries. Therefore, it is in a high risk position that may cause problems in the future. And to mitigate such risks, it is necessary to balance fuel consumption. When one fuel source has problems, it is switched to another fuel, etc. and the use of solar energy by using the method of installing solar cells is one of the interesting alternatives for choosing renewable energy in the future.